History of Quran calligraphy and its evolution

History of Quran calligraphy and its evolution

A) Writing the Qur’an The Holy Qur’an has been revealed to the Holy Prophet in parts for 23 years, from the resurrection to the death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), and he recited and taught the verses. Most Muslims memorized the verses of the Qur’an, and some wrote and preserved the verses with the tools of the day. “Revelation” became famous, whose names and biographies are recorded in the history books of Islam. Then, in stages, verses and chapters of the Qur’an were collected and compiled and became a codified book which was called “Mus’haf” and people copied from this Mus’haf. For further study on this subject, refer to the book See the history of the Qur’an.

B) Writing the letters of the Qur’an In the beginning, the Qur’an was written in the style of the common script of the beginning of Islam. This script did not have any symbols, whether it was a dot or Arabic. These forms are: Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate, Praise be to God, the Lord of the Worlds, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate. Important world treasures are available, such as Quran treasures in Holy Mashhad, Qom Museum, Isfahan, Paris, London and Moscow. Pictures of different examples of this type of calligraphy have also been published in some books related to the history of the Quran. Compared to the current Arabic script, this script has the following features:

  1. It does not have any signs, Arabs or signs.
  2. Many letters, especially elves, are not written. Like the words: “Al-Rahman, Al-Alamin, Malik and Siraat” which are written as “Al-Rahman, Al-Alamin, Malik and Siraat”.
  3. Some of the letters are written in the form of other letters. “Yaghshaha” which is written as “Adrik, Doha and Yaghshi”.
  4. Some of the letters are written in excess of the pronunciation, such as the words “Yadwa, Yatlu, Ma’a, Ji’a and Lashi” ء »have been written. In the early days of Islam, the majority of Muslims were Arabic speakers, and many of them memorized parts or all of the Qur’an and were often familiar with the verses of the Qur’an. Does not eat. That is, letters and words recognized the shape, movements, and states of the letters according to the evidence of the sentence and the presence of the mind, and read them correctly, just as we read Persian language in the first grade with first signs. We take, but then we write and read without a sign. This early writing of the Qur’an has been called the “drawing of the Qur’an.” Look for more details in books on the history of the Qur’an. C) Marking the Qur’anic script In the second half of the first century AH, when the number of non-Arabic-speaking Muslims was constantly increasing, many of them had difficulty reading the Qur’an due to their lack of familiarity and mastery of the Arabic language. This caused the Qur’anic script to be marked in stages, so that its recitation would not be distorted and mistaken. The marking of the Quran was done in two areas:
  5. Punctuation of uniform letters, in order to distinguish them from each other. They are suitable for exquisite paintings and inscriptions. These signs do not play any positive role in teaching and reciting the Qur’an, but they cause problems, for example, this combination of “books” by punctuation in several ways. It turns out, like “Kent, books and cobwebs.”
  6. Marking by movements, rewinding, intensification, and…, which were initially in the form of large dots, then changed shape in stages and became the current shapes. As??? These signs are necessary to recognize the movements and postures of each letter and to read the words correctly, especially the uniform words. Punctuation comes in twelve or more cases, such as: “Books, books, books, counts, counts, counts, counts, counts, counts, counts” Dotted letters are called “dictionary letters” and in contrast, non-dotted letters are called “nonsense letters”. Also, Arabicization is called “Arabic dot, shape or recording”. , Almost completed the line of the Qur’an and made it safe from mistakes, ambiguity, distortion and any other bite. D) The decorative symbols of the Holy Quran were originally written in Kufic script. This script gradually grew and evolved. The Naskh script became similar. Unlike the Kufic script, the Naskh script is a thin and markable line, and the more the symbol is added to it, the more beautiful it becomes. During this period, many decorative and taste symbols have entered the Qur’an. The example of these symbols can be found in the ancient Qur’an in museums and inscriptions around mosques and altars and in atlases. Observed line. Ornamental signs were initially used irregularly, irregularly and only in proportion to the privacy, front and beauty of the calligraphy, but gradually in any part of the Islamic world, it became cohesive and harmonious and in the form of calligraphy. In the present age, these calligraphy methods can be divided into five categories: Signs

Ornamental, at first, they were used irregularly, irregularly and only in proportion to the privacy, appearance and beauty of the calligraphy, but gradually in every type of Islamic country, it became cohesive and harmonious and in the form of a special style and calligraphy. That region was recognized

  1. Egyptian calligraphy: This calligraphy is the style of Egypt and the common style in Arab countries, and in recent years it has become very popular in Iran, especially the Qur’an, which is written in the beautiful calligraphy of the famous Syrian calligrapher “Osman Taha”. Is. For example, in this method, short movements are also written before the stretched movements, such as: Nuhiha, Awzina and Atoni.
  2. Calligraphy of the Indian subcontinent: This calligraphy is common in South Asian countries, such as India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan and eastern provinces of Iran such as Sistan and Baluchestan, East Khorasan, Hormozgan and some other regions. In this way, for example, on the sounds (e) and (he) is written the sign of stillness, such as: Nohiha, Udzina and Atoni.
  3. Turkish calligraphy: This calligraphy is a common method in Turkey, Iran and other Islamic countries. Many of the symbols are out of place and written incorrectly, such as: Noah and Uzina.
  4. Iranian calligraphy: It is a common method in Iran. In this method, too, many signs are not in place and are written incorrectly, and the signs that come with the drawn movements do not have a fixed place. It is on the voice of “him” and sometimes before it. It is noteworthy that all these methods of Quran calligraphy are common in Iran. But now the most common of them is Egyptian and Iranian calligraphy and it can be said that in Iran almost 90% of the Quran Iranian and Egyptian calligraphy and 10% of them are Indian and Turkish calligraphy. Education should not be fruitful, and most people, especially students, should have ambiguities and doubts in reading many words, and the issue of learning the Qur’an should be difficult for them, and they should be unable to read it. Ornamental and taste symbols in the Qur’anic script are only artistic and tasteful and are suitable for exquisite paintings and inscriptions. These symbols do not play any positive role in teaching and reciting the Qur’an, but cause problems. Including: crowded calligraphy, differences in calligraphy, dispersion of teaching methods and irregular reading of Quran calligraphy, setting unnecessary and uncoordinated rules, distance of Quran teaching from Persian teaching, teacher and student hesitation in reading many words, Prolongation of Quran teaching time and its complexity. In fact, the most important factor of diversity and difference in the marking of the Qur’anic script is the same decorative and tasteful signs, such as the signs that have been drawn before the movements. It is easy to read, it is marked in a special way in each way. For example: Noohiha (in Egyptian calligraphy) Of course, in some calligraphies, combined methods and a new calligraphy have emerged. Like some calligraphies, in which in some cases, the Iranian style has been combined with the Indian or Egyptian style. E) Necessary signs that are written in several ways Most of the necessary signs in general methods are written in one way, such as: conquest, fraction, addition and intensification. But some of these signs are based on the rules of reading and recitation. , For example, are written in several ways. For example, to distinguish the connected and necessary fashions from the separate fashions, the fashion symbol in some calligraphies is written in both small and large forms. Sometimes the small or large size of the fashion mark is only in terms of harmony with the beauty of the line and is not related to Tajweed issues. Another example is the sign of Tanveen, which is written in several ways due to its different states in recitation. For example, in Egyptian calligraphy, Tanveen is written as follows: , In this way: and in cases of revolutions, it is written in this way: in other methods, Tanvin has also come in different forms. Various have been written. In the second half of the first century AH, when the number of non-Arabic-speaking Muslims was constantly increasing, many of them had difficulty reading the Qur’an due to their lack of familiarity and mastery of the Arabic language. The line of the Qur’an should be marked so that its recitation is not distorted and mistaken.

Man-made clay cylindrical tablet 2500 years ago with inscriptions engraved on it has become so great that it is called the first charter of human rights in the world. Valuable expressions on the tablet of unfulfilled aspirations It is human beings. The Tablet of Medina has embodied the utopia that existed 2500 years ago for human beings today and with its silent language has told us the characteristics of an ideal society for us in the 21st century. In the words of Rumi who says:

We are hearing, seeing and happy ** We are silent with you, our illegitimate

Because you are going to Jamadi ** Muharram Jan Jamadan because you are

From Jamadi Alam Janha on ** Hear the components of the world

Reveal the rosary of the dead ** Do not be tempted by the interpretations

Because it does not have a soul in the lamps ** You have seen the interpretations

The inscriptions engraved on this tablet, which is in Akkadian (New Babylonian) cuneiform, are expressed in the ruling language and the vast empire of Iran, which shows wisdom, reason, love and attention to high human values, and this is one of the most important reasons. The value and durability of this cylindrical plate has become.

The writings of this charter are written in 45 lines and the respect for nations and sects and monotheistic religions is explained with full patience.

Jabbari ruler who ruled the land of Babylon (present-day Iraq) before Cyrus the Great; As it is stated in line 8: “1. He made a living for the people. Every day he harassed the inhabitants of the city in some way. “He was destroying people with his violent acts … all people.”

And in line 10: “… The people asked the great God to pay attention to the condition of all the inhabitants of the earth whose lives and homes were in ruins…”

In the following lines, Cyrus’s justice is discussed with all people. Line 14: “… Cyrus ruled the country with truth and justice. “Marduk, the great God, was happy with the good deeds and good thoughts of this supporter of the people.”

The inscriptions on the tablet state that Cyrus, although having a vast realm of power and great power, at the height of his humble and tolerant power, freed people of all religions and godly beliefs and allowed them to worship the Lord in shrines. He was able to pay for himself. He was able to ensure peaceful coexistence between nations and nations.

Efforts to Abolish Slavery is another honor of Iranians in 500 BC. I put an end to their misery. I commanded that all people should be free to worship their God and not need them. I commanded that no one should annihilate the people of the city… “

Line 32: “I ordered all the closed places of worship to be opened.” دم I returned all the people who were scattered and displaced to their places. Build their ruined houses

I did. “I called on all people to show solidarity.”

Cyrus calls everyone to the truth and the defense of human dignity, he has sought help only from God throughout the Tablet, which shows his oneness.

Some scholars, considering the character of Cyrus and Dhu al-Qarnayn (in the Qur’an) as equal, have considered him as a heavenly and divine figure. Give. Cyrus is a symbol of the Iranian nation with valuable heavenly and human beliefs 2500 years ago.

The charter of Cyrus is only an example of the letters defending human rights, justice and dignity. The inscription of Darius the Great in the role of Rostam also expresses the defense of human rights, justice and dignity, as stated in paragraphs 2 and 3 of this book: By the will of Ahuramazda, I am such a person that I love the truth, I do not like the bad. I do not want the weak to be harmed by the able. It is not my desire that (the person) be able to be harmed by the weak.

What is right is my desire. I do not like the liar man. I’m not fast. “You hold on to the things that come to me when I am angry.”

In the inscriptions of Biston and Ganjnameh of Hamedan, the Achaemenid kings seek the permanence of their rule only with the help of God Almighty.

The spirit of justice, freedom of precious heavenly beliefs, and the struggle against oppression and self-respect of the human soul and the struggle against slavery 2,500 years ago, reflects the spirit of nationalism and humanity of Iranians that existed before the rise of Islam. With the arrival of the heavenly religion of Islam in Iran and the merging of the nationalist and humanitarian spirit with the transcendent spirit of religiosity, the defense of pure beliefs and pure human thoughts became more important and the emphasis on central justice and the defense of human rights according to emphatic orders. The Holy Quran received a lot of attention. The pure hearts of the united Iranians were ready to accept the heavenly voice of Islam and to accept Islam as a monotheistic truth, because the Iranians have always been the pioneers of the word of truth throughout history.

Today, after two thousand five hundred years, human societies are in crisis and need the provisions of the valuable charter of Cyrus more than ever. Today, governments need to reconsider their behavior, speech, actions, logic, principles, thoughts and ideals, and the Charter of Cyrus is a valid document to refer to human and divine principles.

Cyrus conquered Babylon without any bloodshed, freed his people from the tyranny of the ruler of that time (Nebuchadnezzar) and restored peace to his people as a gift, if we see today in Iraq the United States under the pretext of fighting dictatorship Saddam and the salvation of his people invade this country, overthrow Saddam. But how much blood was shed on the ground, was peace restored to its people? Was peace and friendship established in Afghanistan?

Cyrus allows the shrines to be rebuilt, and the people to worship their Lord with whatever religion they have, but today we see mosques being set on fire, insulting the sanctities of the Muslims (the Holy Book of the Qur’an), if this The heavenly book has been sent to all the worlds of light and mercy. Is emphasized and is a complete reference for all free people in the world; Today is the future of the world, full of the dust of modernity that has gone astray, cut off from the source of grace and its very mansions.

Yes, blood and hostility are rippling in it… and we are waiting for the next day of the world, which is a return to oneself, love, coexistence and humanity are rippling in it, the truth of Hanif religion is revealed in it and people are smiling at each other.

The Iranian plateau with its climatic diversity is probably one of the most important origins of the emergence and expansion of the pottery industry in West Asia. The growing trend of pottery for thousands of years has not been in any region of West Asia like Iran. The turning points of this trend have undoubtedly been reflected in the emergence of pottery around the eighth millennium BC in the Central Zagros region and the emergence of pottery wheels and the interaction of pottery kilns in the fourth millennium BC. Pottery; According to dictionaries, this term generally means objects made of baked clay, such as bowls, jars, etc.… Also, pottery is called pottery made. Pottery also includes a variety of objects made from pottery. The European term “ceramic” also has the meaning of pottery in Persian, which is derived from the Greek word (Keramikos) which itself is derived from (Keramon) meaning clay. Therefore, pottery also refers to the art or industry of making pottery and baked objects. Usually, if the products are unglazed, they are called pottery, and if they are glazed, they are called porcelain according to the flowers and glazes used in them. Pottery is in fact the first artistic and industrial product of early humans and the product of human needs and consciousness in the use of natural factors, and since its raw materials include: soil, water, and fire were found in the lands of human habitation, signs We see its production in all parts of human habitation.
The oldest pottery objects obtained from Iranian archeological excavations are related to Ganj Darreh in Kermanshah province; Its history dates back to the eighth millennium BC. Pottery is an art that has traditionally maintained its valuable technical principles for thousands of years. In addition to artistic values, by carefully examining these works, it is possible to know the professions, industries and material works of tribes and human societies in the realms of different cultures. According to what has been said, pottery should be valued as a manifestation of the activity of the mind and creativity and artistic invention of past human beings. Because pottery is a universal art that shows us not only inventive tastes, but also certain signs of social life and period of life and its material and spiritual characteristics, and is a direct means of identifying the civilization of different cities, ethnicities and eras. Because each nation has used its own symbols, shapes and ornaments to decorate its pottery. To achieve the purpose of archaeologists using the art of design and precise techniques, archaeologists try to bring to life the various pieces and objects obtained from ancient sites, and by depicting all the motifs used in pottery to determine the desired period, the secrets. Art and many unknowns of life of that time are realized. Pottery: The art of pottery has a special value among archaeologists, because these small pieces of pottery that seem insignificant, bring us to the time and life of the people of that time. The technique of pottery in Iran has continued from the beginning of civilization to the present day and during this period has undergone various changes. According to Gershman, about ten thousand years ago, people in the Bakhtiari mountains, while hunting and preparing food, also made pottery. The theory that most archaeologists consider the beginning of the pottery industry in Iran is noteworthy. According to Professor Pope in his review of Iranian art, “Recent evidence strongly supports the hypothesis of recent years that agriculture and perhaps related industries, namely, pottery and the pottery and weaving industry, began on the Iranian plateau.” . The evolution of pottery in the ancient hills soon made the early inhabitants realize that they could meet their needs through pottery. Pottery is the best work left from the early societies, especially in the civilizations of the Iranian plateau. منقوش ». At first, attention was paid to the inside of the vessel, but later, in patterned pottery, decorations were applied to the outer wall of the vessel. Most of these dishes are in the form of bowls, base jars, glasses and dishes similar to animal sculptures. The invention of the potter’s wheel in the fourth millennium in Iran brought about a great change in the pottery industry. Pottery artifacts discovered from silk and the ancient sites of southern Susa, Chaghamish and Talbakun in Persepolis indicate the making of pottery with wheels. During the same period, there was a change in the drawing of motifs: first, the body of dishes was decorated with geometric and decorative motifs, and after a while, the motif of animals became common, and then artists used a special subject to express beliefs and sometimes the environment and life. , Most of the characteristics of life, including religious, moral and artistic, were painted on pottery. From the discoveries of Silk Hill, Hesar Hill, Gyan Hill in Nahavand and other ancient hills, it appears that from the fifth millennium BC, the inhabitants of these areas began to make painted pottery. The prehistoric potter composed poetry as if by painting on pottery. Using simple visual elements, the painter’s pottery depicts objects, animals, and humans, such as parallel wavy lines inside a circle and rectangle, representing water, and a triangle whose surface is square, representing a mountain or square with horizontal and vertical lines. The division and the wavy lines drawn in it are probably a sign of agricultural land. The animals painted on the dishes are mainly: goats, rams, deer, cows,

Birds and so on. But unlike the cave paintings, the real form of the animal is not considered here, but its concise and exaggerated design is discussed. Because the arrangement of pottery is more important in the work of the potter: he arbitrarily transforms the natural form into an abstract form in order to fulfill his decorative purposes. During this period, the body of pottery became soft and shiny, and more or less these stages have been completed in all the hills and ancient villages. It can be said that these stages depended on the period of civilization. For example, when the pottery was rough and uneven, people’s houses were also made of mud and stratification, but at the stage when the pottery became thin and polished, the houses were also made of clay and brick. Among the pottery of the Achaemenid period there are a number of pottery statues; These sculptures are imitations of golden sculptures, which are mostly in the shape of lions. This type of pottery is called “Rayton” utensils. During the Parthian period, due to special attention to gold and silver vessels, the production of pottery decreased. One of the characteristics of pottery of this time is the glazing of dishes. The color of these glazes was light green to turquoise blue. Remains of the period include large jars for storing food, human-shaped earthenware coffins, vase-shaped utensils, and glazed thermoses. During the Sassanid period, although art, industry and architecture were perfected, the pottery industry did not develop much. Perhaps such simple decorations of unglazed dishes became the basis for the creation of dishes with added role (barbutin) in the early Islamic period. Glass: Perhaps the first stage of glassmaking in Iran can be attributed to the Elamite period. In the excavations of Choghaznabil temple, a large number of hollow glass pipes were found, which were placed diagonally inside the frames of the temple windows, next to each other. In addition to these works, pieces of glass glaze for decoration on glazed tiles, porcelain beads, some of which were made of glass glaze, were obtained here. The presence of imitation porcelain beads and glazed tiles and glass beads from different ancient sites of Iran such as Susa, Zivieh, Hasanlu and… shows that the construction of such objects has continued and developed in the Achaemenid period. With the beginning of the Achaemenid rule in the middle of the first millennium (550 BC), the art of making glass objects entered a new stage in terms of design and role. Apparently, with the beginning of the Parthian kingdom in Iran and the conflicts of this dynasty with the Seleucid government, the art of glassmaking stagnated. The presence of a number of glass vessels from the ancient sites of Parthia, especially in “Nessa”, the first Parthian capital, indicates the continuation of this industry in the Parthian period. The Sassanid period can be considered the peak of the art of glassmaking in pre-Islamic Iran, the discovery of many glass objects in various forms and various uses of ancient sites is evidence of this claim. The most important type of decoration of dishes in this period is lathe in various forms, especially honeycomb lathe, which was widely done on hemispherical cups and other utensils. Seal: With the development of civilization in cases such as house building, domestication of animals, agricultural activities, pottery industry, ‌ pottery, preparation of stone and mud spindles for spinning and weaving and making various tools, even decorative accessories and makeup from various stones, construction Seals also became popular for the expansion of trade relations between tribes and nations. It was necessary to guarantee and take care of the contents of a jar or a batch of goods so that the goods could be delivered intact at the destination. Stamps were used to identify ownership. It was marked on a clay lump and placed in the mouth of the jar or tied with a rope. Before the invention of calligraphy, from the middle of the fourth millennium BC, man understood his purpose by engraving images on the seal.
After the invention of calligraphy, these messages, including images and calligraphy, were engraved on seals. The earliest seals were made of baked mud, gypsum, iron ore, marble, ivory and bone, glass, metal, and possibly scallops. Early beads usually had a hole that was used as a pendant on a necklace or bracelet and most likely for a spell. One of the most beautiful seals has been cylindrical or cylindrical seals. The use of cylindrical seals is the same as the use of flat and ordinary seals used to record commercial transactions and financial orders and documents, signatures and religious aspects and mythology in the form of spells for seals and so on. Gradually, designs, like other arts and sciences, evolved and reached a degree of perfection. In archeology, which is responsible for discovering objective historical documents and interpreting these documents, the importance of technical design has been considered by scientists and researchers for a century. Archaeologists hand over the pieces and objects to the pottery design team, who use the art and technique of design and precise techniques to depict all the details, decorations and motifs used in the pottery. Pottery is one of the oldest man-made compositions that has been used throughout his life since ancient times. For this reason, prehistoric portraiture plays an important role. Pottery has undergone significant changes over time in relation to the change of prehistoric cultures and the experience of human races in terms of gender, form, color and role. These determinants of determinants in the classification of prehistoric and later types of pottery have led to differing views on how man-made the first pottery. Some people know the roots of pottery in the basket weaving industry and believe that for the first time, the flowers lining the bottom of plant baskets, after drying or being on fire and burning the wood of the basket, inspire the potter.

Has been. Whatever the origin of the pottery industry, there is no doubt that the earliest hand-made and rough pottery and its adhesive material were crushed sand and plants. They had started and started the food production period. They settled in the plains as early agricultural communities, creating a civilization characterized by the production of delicate and beautiful pea and red pottery. This civilization, along with its other features, flourished in this region and gradually spread over a wide area in the prehistoric world. Traces and remains of this type of pottery from the eastern Mediterranean to the Indus Valley have been discovered in archaeological excavations in ancient areas. One of the distinct traditions of Iranian plateau pottery is red painted pottery, which was made during the sixth and fifth millennia BC. It was formed and became common on the edge of the desert on the central plateau of Iran. These pottery are handmade and red in color and have a mixed paste with sand powder or chopped plants. This type of pottery has been identified during archeological excavations from the ancient sites of Cheshmeh Ali, Qara Tappeh Shahriyar, Ismail Abad, Zagheh Hill, Silk and Hesar. The most important tolerance in the pottery industry that completely transformed this industry is the invention of the potter’s wheel, which was made in the fourth millennium BC. What happened is that the potters first used slow-moving or slow-moving cycles and then achieved the high-speed and fast-moving cycles that are still used in traditional pottery workshops today. From the beginning of the third millennium BC. Another type of pottery penetrates into the plateau from the northern regions of the Iranian plateau, which is known as gray pottery. This type of pottery is wheel-making and has been influenced by contemporary metal utensils in terms of construction style and decorations. High-tech gray pottery is baked in a special kiln in which the potter has controlled the temperature and the rate of active oxidation. Gray pottery culture from the beginning of the third millennium BC. In the ancient areas of Yanik, Ardabil hill, Turang, Gorgan hill, Hesar Damghan hill have been identified. Shiny gray pottery during the Iron Age, ie from the middle of the second millennium BC. Later it spread to most parts of the Iranian plateau and in the same period reached the peak of beauty, elegance and technical progress in construction, cooking and decoration. From the first half of the millennium BC. With the prosperity of metalworking, the pottery industry is declining, so that in the historical period, the pottery made is mostly very rough and without role, and there is no news about the delicacy of prehistoric pottery. The peak of civilization and pottery art in Iran dates back to the Seljuk period. The shadow of this period is known as one of the unique works of art in the world. So far, samples of pottery from before 800 ancient sites of Iran, in prehistoric, historical and Islamic cultural periods of the Iranian plateau have been stored in the Pottery Bank of Iran. The highest number is related to the north-central and northwestern regions of Iran. At present, the information resources of the Pottery Bank of Iran are used to teach archeology students at the University of Tehran. It should be noted that interested researchers in other educational and research institutions of the country can also use the information of this bank.

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