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Familiarity with the history of Iran
When it comes to the history of Iran, it is necessary to consider whether it refers to the history of tribes and peoples who have lived within the political borders of present-day Iran since the beginning of history or the history of tribes and peoples who call themselves Iranian in some way and geographically. Which includes present-day Iran and lands that have historically been part of Greater Iran (Iranshahr). Sometimes the history of Iran begins with the arrival of the Aryans, from whom Iran is also named, on the plateau of Iran. But this does not mean that the plateau of Iran was uninhabited or civilized before the arrival of the Aryans. Before the arrival of the Aryans on the plateau of Iran, very ancient civilizations had blossomed and withered in this place, and some were still flourishing.
The history of Iran is basically divided into two general parts, the history of Iran before Islam and the history of Iran after Islam, which are also divided into smaller parts.
History of Iran before Islam:
It is divided into three parts:
Iran before the Aryans
– The migration of Aryans to Iran
History of Iran before the Aryans
Before the Aryans, various tribes lived in different parts of the Iranian plateau. In the history of Iran before the Aryans, the civilizations of the burnt city (in Sistan), the civilization of Ilam (in the north of Khuzestan), the civilization of Jiroft (in Kerman), the civilization of the inhabitants of Silk hill (in Kashan), the civilization of Urartu (in Azerbaijan), the hill of Gyan (in Nahavand ) And the civilization of the Cassians (in Kermanshah and Lorestan) and the Tapurs in Tabaristan (Mazandaran) were in Iran.
The greatest civilization in the history of Iran was the Elamite state, whose land was in the southwest of Iran and more or less corresponds to Khuzestan. The capital of Elam was the city of Susa, the relics of which have been found in this city. The various divisions in Elam apparently had separate governments, each with its own kings.
These four regions were Avan, Anshan, Simesh and Shush. The Elamite state was often at war with the more developed Mesopotamian states, namely the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. This period became one of the largest forces in the region in periods of Iranian history. Since the emergence of the Persian emperors (550 BC), Elam has been one of the tributary provinces of Iran. The city of Susa was also a rich and glorious city at this time. The Elamite language was one of the three languages in which the royal texts of Iran were written.
Aryan migration to Iran
The Aryans are a large branch of the white race, whose original territory was probably from the north of the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea to the rivers Sihon and Jeyhun. They later moved partly to Europe and in groups to Iran and India. As a result, Asian peoples and their languages are called Indo-European. Aryan means noble. The Aryans of India and Iran have lived together for a long time and after a long time they separated and before the separation, they had common myths and social organization and language.
In the history books of Iran, the time of Aryans coming to Iran is written some 2000 BC and some 14th century BC to the 6th century BC. When the Aryans reached the plateau of Iran, they first fortified the native people but then employed them. After entering Iran, the Aryans were divided into different tribes, the most important of which are the Medes, Parthians and Persians. The name Iran is derived from the name of the Aryans and means the land of the Aryans.
History of ancient Iran
The history of ancient Iran is considered to be the period of the formation of the Medes until the end of the Sassanid rule and the Arab invasion of Iran.
Medes around 708 to 550 BC
The Medes were an Iranian ethnic group of Aryan descent who settled in the western part of the Iranian plateau. The land of the Medes included the western part of the Iranian plateau. The land of Azerbaijan in the northwest of the Iranian plateau was known as the Little Medes and the rest of the Zagros region was known as the Great Medes. The capital of the Medes is Hegmatane. They were able to establish the first state in the history of Iran in the early seventh century BC. The Medes’s government was abolished by Cyrus in 550 BC, and Persian rule passed to the Persians.
Achaemenids – 550 to 330 BC
The Achaemenid ancestor of this dynasty subjugated the Persian tribes. After him, his son, his son, became king in Anshan (east of Shushtar). Later, they made Pasargadae their center. By the time of Cyrus III, six kings ruled from this dynasty.
After Alexander’s death (323 BC), his conquests were divided among his generals, and most of his Asian conquests, of which Iran was the core, reached Seleucus I. Thus Iran came under the rule of the Seleucids (330-250 BC). They ruled over a large part of western Iran for eighty years, but there was almost never peace in their territory. After a while, the Parthians expanded their influence and finally they were able to destroy the Seleucids, and because the first Parthian king was called Ashk, they named this dynasty Parthians.
Parthians – 250 BC to about 226 AD
The Parthians respected the Greek civilization that had emerged in Iran during the Seleucid period. Some Parthian kings were well acquainted with Greek literature, and some Greek plays were performed at the court of the Parthian kings. At that time, there was a parliament called Mahestan, which itself consisted of two parliaments, one was the aristocratic parliament and the other was the parliament of the “wise and the Moghans”, which had a consultative aspect and did not have much influence in affairs.
During this period in the history of Iran, his damper and agriculture and trade flourished and slavery flourished. Their religion was the religion of Zoroaster and also the worship of their ancestors. Other religions also had freedom. Tears 22 (Blash I) was the one who collected the Avesta. Their language was Middle Persian, which due to its great contact with the Romans, the Roman language and civilization also influenced their court. Their script is Aramaic Syriac and some coins have Greek words engraved on them. Among the relics of this period in Iranian history are the Anahita Temple in Kangavar, the ruins of the Kangavar Temple, and reliefs from the Mehrdad and Goodarz periods in Biston.
The Sassanids are an Iranian imperial family throughout the history of Iran that ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sassanid emperors, originally from Persia, dominated a large part of western Asia. The Sassanid capital was Ctesiphon, near Baghdad in present-day Iraq.
The Parthian dynasty was extinct by Ardashir I of Sassanid dynasty. He founded the Sassanid dynasty which lasted until 652 AD in Iran. The Sassanid government was a national government based on Iranian religion and civilization and gained a lot of power. During this period, the wars between Iran and Rome continued.
History of Iran after Islam
After the establishment of Islam in Iran, which occurred as a result of the victory of the Muslim Arabs over the Sassanids and their conquest of Iran, many changes took place in the social, religious and political spheres in the history of Iran.
Muslim domination of Iran was not easy. The cities soon accepted Muslim rule, but the countryside simply did not submit to their rule. The eastern parts of Iran, as well as Tabarestan and Gilan, were later occupied by the Muslims. They had to conquer a place many times.
Dissatisfied with the class discrimination in their country, the Iranians embraced Islam and sought to spread it, but they never hid their opposition to Umayyad and Abbasid rule in Iran, and set up independent movements to form governments such as the Taherians. (826-881 AD) and Saffarians (866-903 AD) can be considered as their results.
For the first time in the history of Iran after the rise of Islam, the Taherians gained independence from the eastern regions of Iran, such as Khorasan, and the Saffarids used a foreign language instead of Arabic for the first time. From the Samanid period (819-999 AD) a new Persian script emerged and the Arabic alphabet became popular with the Persian language.
After the conquest of Shiraz and the establishment of their government, the rulers of Al-Buwayh (1055-945 AD) went to Baghdad and occupied it, turning the caliphate into their own instrument and taking the real power in their hands.
The Ghaznavids (1186-977 AD) introduced themselves in the history of Iran as Muslim Ghazians or warriors and invaded lands such as India.
The Seljuks (1038-1194 AD) established their rule with victory over the Ghaznavids and conquered all of Iran and consolidated their power with the help of great Iranian ministers and scientists, but were eventually destroyed by the Khwarezmshahis.
The rule of the Khwarezm Shahs (1031-1271 AD) was another rule in the history of Iran that began with the invasion of Iran by the Mongols. The result of this invasion was the extinction of the Khwarezm Shah government and the looting of cities and the massacre of the Iranian people, which was accompanied by the destruction of Iran’s economy and agriculture.
The Mongols quickly occupied Iranian territory and marched on Baghdad, killing the Abbasid caliph and destroying the Islamic caliphate (1228 AD).
After the Mongols, the Timurids (1506-1370 AD) invaded Iran and once again invaded Iran.
From the Safavid period (1732-1501 AD), for the first time in the history of Iran, the Shiite religion was introduced as the official religion of Iran. The Shiite religion with its political and social characteristics led to the unity and independence of Iran and preserved its national identity against the invasions and deadly blows of the Ottoman Empire and once again throughout the history of Iran was able to rise as a great political and religious power.
During the reign of Shah Abbas Kabir, the city of Isfahan was chosen as the capital of Iran and reached its peak of greatness and glory, so that many relics from that period to the present day have survived. The Safavids were removed from the history of Iran as a result of the Afghan invasion and occupation of Isfahan.
Nader Shah Afshar defeated the Afghans and, while dominating all of Iran, established the Afshar dynasty (1734). After the Afsharians, the prisoners (1750-1796 AD) relied on the throne of power and during their rule, the city of Shiraz was chosen as the capital and became a magnificent and large city.
The Qajar period (1779-1924) was one of the periods in the history of Iran in which the influence of colonial powers such as Britain and Tsarist Russia developed in Iran and these powers imposed large territories in Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia and Khorasan was separated from Iran. The result of these developments was the emergence of movements such as the tobacco uprising, constitutionalism, the forest movement and the Mohammad Khiabani uprising in Iran.
In 1924, Reza Khan came to power and announced the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty. During the Pahlavi period, the Iranian oil industry became nationalized under the leadership of Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh, and this issue led to the uprisings of independence, which eventually led to the Iranian revolution in 1978.
Historical periods of post-Islamic Iran
Taherian (820 – 873 AD / 205 – 259 AH / 199-252 AD) Founder of Tahir Zoliminin
Saffarians (875-900 AD / 261-287 AH / 254-279 AD) Founder Yaqub Laith
Samanids (875-999 AD / 261-389 AH / 254-378 AD) Founder of Nasr I The great princes Ismail Samani and Nasr Ibn Ahmad
Ziariyan (928 – 1070 AD / 315 – 462 AH / 306 – 449 AD) Founder of Mardavij, son of the famous pilgrim Shah Qaboos bin Vashmgir
Buyan (932 – 1049 AD / 320 – 440 AH / 311 – 428 AD) Founder of Emad al-Dawlah Ali Shahriar the Great Azd al-Dawlah
Ghaznavids (998 – 1160 AD / 388 – 555 AH / 377 – 539 AD) Founder of Sultan Mahmud of Ghaznavid
Seljuks (1038 – 1194 AD / 429 – 590 AH / 417 – 573 AD) Founder of Tughral Beyk, the great princes of Malikshah and Sultan Sanjar
Khwarazmshahian (1078 – 1220 AD / 470 – 617 AH / 456 – 599 AD) Founder (Anoushtkin Gharjeh) The famous Shahriar Mohammad Khwarazmshah
Ilkhanids (1256 – 1336 AD / 654 – 736 AH / 635 – 714 AD) Founder of Holakokhan
Teymourian (1370 – 1498 AD / 771 – 903 AH / 748 – 877 AD) Founder of Timur Gurkhani
Safavids (1501 – 1723 AD / 906 – 1135 AH / 879 – 1102 AD) Founder of Shah Ismail I, the great prince Shah Abbas I
Afsharian (1735 – 1748 AD / 1148 – 1161 AH / 1114 – 1127 AD): Founder of Nader Shah
Prisoners (1750 – 1795 AD / 1163 – 1209 AH / 1129 – 1173 AD) Founder of Karim Khan Zand
Qajarian (1795 – 1927 AD / 1209 – 1345 AH / 1173 – 1305 AD) Founder of Agham Mohammad Khan Shahriar the Great Nasser al-Din Shah
Pahlavi dynasty (1926 – 1979 AD / 1344 – 1399 AH / 1304 – 1357 AD) Founder of Reza Shah
Islamic Republic (beginning of 1979/1399 AH / 1357 AD) Founder of Ruhollah Khomeini