department of encyclopedia

We thank God Almighty for once again succeeding in pursuing another mission in the direction of patriotic and Islamic goals. Dear, larger goals should be considered in the written categories related to different aspects of human life in terms of religious tendencies, the Islamic nature of which is manifested, especially at this time when people need to understand more spiritual and psychological issues.

Therefore, we have raised issues and discussions that are typically a theoretical scientific project that is inextricably linked to the existential, mental, semantic and peripheral dimensions and the human being who is the main axis of this project.

In fact, this plan seeks to explain and rationalize issues such as the first nature and the second nature for today’s man from the epistemological point of view, which is extracted from the sources of the Qur’an, Shiite hadiths, and Sunni hadiths, and is based on the semantic method. For what purpose was he created and what was his purpose and what tool is hidden in him that he can ascend to higher levels and go through mystical passion to reach a class of understanding and intuition of mystical and social consciousness that confronts itself with creation? May God and existence perish, and also enjoy a social life of his own in the non-Seleucid class, in fact, live with reason and with a heart of servitude.

This project, entitled “Anthropology from the Perspective of Islam”, studies human beings. This plan has 6 axes and 36 projects, some of which are independent and some of which are subject to other axes, and some projects are implemented from the smallest to the largest, not integrated and separately, in order to maintain the order and logical order of the projects. In summary, this article can be presented as follows:

The first axis: origin, descent, and human nature: which are the issues of 5 projects:


In this section, man in terms of his origin, his origin, his history, whether in the history of the earth or in the cosmic history, or in the divine and supernatural history, and what matters give him existential consistency, and what matters or matters make him different from others. Creatures of beings are differentiated, studied in this way, projects are presented as follows:

1- There are human differences from other beings:
The distinctions of man over other beings of the universe can be determined on the basis of intrinsic, non-intrinsic, absolute distinctions, as well as the characteristics of each of these distinctions.

2- Genesis of man:
The origin of man with two views, one that believes that man was created separately from other beings and the other view is based on the fact that man came into being as a result of the natural evolution of creatures.

3- Human existence before being born:
This discussion is considered with two important points of view: 1- Some believe that man was in the particle world and 2 others believe that man existed before he was born, but in other worlds such as Plato, for example, and the world of fixed objects. In the future, the meaning of coordinates and rational and narrative reasons and the difference between them will be discussed.

4 – The divine aspect of man:
In this section, too, man is remarkable in similar respects to God from two points of view: 1- The belief of a group that considers man as the only being created as God 2- The belief of a group that considers man as the caliph of God Rational and narrative aspects and aspects and aspects of the divine caliphate will be examined and examined.

5 – Human nature:
There are various theories in this regard that some believe that man has a single nature that is considered inherently good or bad due to various reasons such as inappropriate social environment and … and some people have two natures beyond (excellent) And know the inferior nature (Danni) and no longer discuss the nature of man and believe that human nature is in cooperation and conflict with each other, and consequently the question arises whether man is inherently bad and goodness affects him and vice versa ? What is meant by good and evil? Are human forces in cooperation or conflict with each other? And … which will be addressed in other articles.

The second axis (“Human differences”), which includes 8 projects: In this axis, it refers to the cases that humans, despite having a common nature and physical, mental and psychological structure, has differences, and points out from what perspective these differences are? Are these differences resolvable or impossible? In fact, what factors and how (as a project) affect human differences and what results? Factors such as:


1 – Gender:
What does being male or female create in social life? What are the differences between males and females? What connection can there be between male and female? What are the physical, mental, psychological, practical and moral characteristics of these two sexes?

2 – Age:
In this project, attention is paid to recognizing a number and examining the nature of life stages and examining the differences and similarities between different stages of human life such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, middle age … physically, mentally, mentally and practically in different stages of human life.

3 – Inheritance:
Inheritance also affects a person’s psychological, moral and social personality, but to what extent does heredity affect human differences? What is meant by hereditary factors? What method weakens or strengthens the influence of hereditary factors? There are questions that will be answered in this project.

4 – Education:
Education is in opposition to hereditary factors, age, fate and God Almighty. In this project, it should be seen what types and factors education has and to what extent and how it affects a person? What is meant by education? How can education be in opposition to factors such as age, divine judgment and predestination, philosophical determinism, social depravity, etc.?

5 – Race, color and skin:
This is a very obvious factor that is effective, but to which human structures does it penetrate? Can it affect ethics and other things like science, art, art? What is meant by race, color and skin?

6- Geography and climate:
In this section, we try to examine the effect of these factors in each of the human structures, ethics and matters such as science, technology.

7- Relative value and importance of differentiating factors:
At this stage, it should be determined to what extent and the relative importance of the various factors mentioned earlier have been relative? And we examine the reciprocity of each of the factors together.

8- Existential philosophy of human differences:
This project can be examined with two views: 1- Human differences for material reasons 2- Human differences for ultimate reasons. In the first theory, we should consider the differences in gender, age, inheritance, education, race and color and skin, geography and climate, and if we consider the ultimate causes to be involved in the existence of human differences, we should look for these causes in the existence of human differences. Let’s go.

The third axis ((areas of human existence)) which includes 4 projects. In this axis, man is analyzed existentially to find out what components and parts are the structure of human existence? What do these components and parts have to do with each other? What are their interactions? In this axis, the following issues are discussed:


1- Number and nature of human existential areas:
Does man have a field? What are its rational and narrative reasons? How many areas does a human have? In this case, what is the number, the truth, the nature of these areas based on rational and narrative reasons? Is being one-dimensional related to one’s personal identity, to moral values, to life after death, to the divine aspect of man?

2- Relation of human existential areas with each other:
If a person has two areas of the body and mind, this relationship should be examined in terms of non-causal, one-way causal, two-way causal, and the number and nature of relationships with each other, whether the relationship is in body and mind or body and Breath or mind breath?

3- Areas of the human soul:
The areas of the human soul, which are other projects in this section, are the epistemological and ideological, emotional, emotional and volitional areas that will be studied, and also in this project, what are the areas of the soul?
What is meant by the epistemological and ideological realm, the emotional realm, the emotional realm? What is the connection, origin and difference of these areas? And…

4- Relation of areas of human soul:
In this project, the relationship between each of the areas of the soul with the other two areas and their impact on each other is studied. The effect of knowledge and ideas on feelings, emotions, emotions is researched. The relationship between the realm of knowledge and belief is explained with the realm of emotion and emotion. The effect of will on knowledge and belief.

Fourth axis: human values: which includes 5 projects. In this axis, the discussion is about value, not reality. This axis will be discussed as follows:


1- Function of human life:
From two aspects of the function of human life in the universe and in the world of nature and the function of human temperament in the universe, in the natural world in human history and in the society to which a person belongs.

2. Value in human life:
In this project, what is the value of human beings is a question that is examined from the two aspects of the value of human life and the value of human individual life. The important question of this project is whether human life is worth living or not? We will encounter different beliefs that will be mentioned.

3- The purpose of human life:
In this section, it should be noted that what is the purpose of human life? In this section, their common and different goals will be studied, and what should be the purpose of human life? In this case, value issues arise as to whether all human beings should have a common goal or goals or different goals?

4- Happiness and cruelty:
In this project, the nature and sex of happiness and cruelty and human and non-human factors of happiness and cruelty are investigated and examined whether happiness and cruelty is a sociological thing or a psychological thing or a spiritual and metaphysical thing and also in relation to the factors of happiness. Causing or cruelty, non-human factors such as God, Satan, the world and nature … and human factors are examined socially and individually.

5. Intrinsic (or ultimate) desires of human beings:
Intrinsic desires are desires that man wants for himself and not for something else, he wants peace for himself, and non-instinctual desires are those that man wants for something else. The aim of this project is to prepare a list of human innate desires and to separate them in terms of different desires, for example, in the section of innate, individual, psychological human desires, psychological and spiritual desires are separated from each other.

Fifth Axis: Human Tasks, which includes 9 projects. In this axis is the discussion of human duties and issues surrounding his duties. First, man’s duties to God, himself, other human beings, and the nature around him are presented, and then the longitudinal relationship between these duties is discussed. It is also a discussion of the conditions and issues surrounding the duty of every human being, such as why should we live morally? Is morality economically viable? … In this axis, the projects are presented as follows:


1- Man’s duties to God:
That is, the beliefs of the feelings and emotions of the desires that should or should not have been given to God, and what kind of actions should be performed against God?

2. Man’s duties towards himself:
That is, the beliefs that a person should have, the desires that he should have or not have, as well as the actions that he should perform, whether moral, ritual or poetic.

3- Human duties compared to other human beings:
That is, what actions, feelings, and emotions, and in general, what duties a person should pay to others.

4. Man’s duties to the world around him:
Do you define the duties of man around you in the universe, that is, what beliefs should one have about the world and what beliefs should one not have? What actions and feelings and emotions should be considered.

5- Homework conditions:
In performing these tasks, human beings must observe certain conditions. The meaning of these conditions is science and power, but what is the meaning of science and power in these conditions? What are the types of science and power in this situation? What is the ruling on scientific and strength education?

6. Why live morally?
Why should we live morally in the face of these tasks? Is living morally desirable for pleasure or desirable for others? Is living morally a means of researching the afterlife or the religious or the social or individual?

7. Is it moral to live economically:
Does living by morality create limitations for human beings? And in terms of wealth and power, social status, etc., does it harm human beings? And the relationship with the ethics of living with the hereafter and worldly chapters will also be examined.

8. Life after passing away:
In this section, with questions such as the difference between human existence physically, mentally, mentally, etc., after leaving the world and the worlds after the life of this world, ie purgatory and the hereafter, the system of punishment and the reward of that world, the issue is researched.

9- Personal identity and its criteria:
In this section, after examining the identity and its personality, considering the rational and narrative faith, the necessity or non-necessity of personal identity for survival after death is researched and finally the different theories that exist regarding the criteria of identity are studied.

Axis 6: The Impact of Islamic Anthropology on Important Social Institutions:


This axis is a functional axis. The effects of his theoretical discussions will be examined before the five (5) axes of the five important social institutions of the family, economics, politics, law, and education. It is a social institution based on Islamic teachings and sayings.